Writing Reports and Research Papers

Thursday, November 28th 2019. | template


Writing Reports and Research Papers


A research paper is a piece of scientific writing in which the original research of the author or student is used to substantiate the claim or thesis that he wishes to prove, and which he begins by analyzing and interpreting his results.


As a beginner, writing is neither a simple nor a natural process because your mind needs to put together the thoughts, ideas, feelings, and emotions that make up the conceptualization for writing themes, actions, scenes, characters, attitudes, and the interactions depicted by the person Dialog. Next, you need to assemble and organize them all. Use tools called words. These are increasingly being combined in sentences, paragraphs, pages, chapters and possibly full-length books. Spelling, grammar and punctuation must always be respected. This requires constant practice so that these components can be linked by neuropathways in the brain. Finally, they must be guided down the arm of the motor skills and converted into printouts that have been captured on paper or on the computer. This process can take years and even decades to become perfect for you.


Think about what you want to say before you put the pen on the paper, and then hold it in the form of words and sentences. After writing a substantial portion of it, be it a few paragraphs or pages, you can study structure, grammar, and spelling. Expression is primary. Correction is secondary. There is a difference between better writing and a better sense of what you are writing. The latter creates complacency and self-confidence.

While everyone may strive to write well, it may be important to first define what bad writing can be. Bad writing involves one or more of the following elements: bad conception, bad argument, lack of clarity, unconvincing and irrelevant points, bad organization, incoherence and general weakness. As already mentioned, the mechanics can be changed or corrected at any time. Writing whether “good” or “bad” can thus be reduced to two aspects.

1). Content (creativity)

2). Shape (fluent)

Authors can excel in one form or another – that is, they are mutually exclusive.

Approaching the topics:

“Everything is written in context,” says Bill Stott in “Write to the Point” (Anchor Press / Doubleday, 1984, p. 23). “It’s written at a certain time, for a purpose and for someone or a group of people, so to write something new and useful you need to know the content, because you need to know what’s already known to work against it When you write, you have to ask yourself, “Who am I writing for? What do you know about the topic? What do you think you know? What can I tell them that is different but still plausible? ”

It is a challenge to look at a topic that has already been written about, and to give the reader a new perspective or perspective, or to uncover something that is not well known. This can be expressed by the following opening lines:

1). Nobody has said so far …

2). It was not universally recognized that …

3). One thing few people notice about _____ is that …

These opening lines will most likely spur the reader on to continue with the piece and to some extent serve as a hook that will lure him into it. However, if you write a research paper or thesis, you must be able to support your claim. And while what an author says must be true in nonfiction, essays, articles, and theses, it may be more important to the reader how fresh or interesting his approach is.


If possible, choose a theme that will inspire, annoy, touch, amuse, or confuse you – something that matters to you and that interests you intensely. Writing about it will not only change your feelings, but your interest and passion will be reflected in what you grasp, and the reader will recognize it.

Take the following into account.

1). Say something that you believe needs to be said in the context in which you write.

2). Be original in the points you want to cite or in the evidence that has been used to support it. Best both.

3). Look for valuable things that you can write about in people, in the world, and in yourself. Your own experience can certainly serve as a rewarding topic.


In addition to the topic that you have selected for your research work, your article or your thesis, the organization of the topic is also indicated. How you express it and the order in which your arguments are presented is crucial.

Like an unfolding path the reader follows on his journey, your organization includes the aspects, elements, and arguments needed to prove your claim. Of course, a help for this approach of origin and purpose is a mental or written representation, considering that not everyone thinks in such terms and consequently does not need them all.

Outlines or lists of points that need to be made can not necessarily be categorized as “writing”. Instead, they facilitate the writing process. The representation of facts requires logical transitions and support from the previous to the succeeding, ie point B depends first on point A. There are two basic ways to combine paragraphs.

1). Repeat the keyword or words from the previous paragraph.

2). Use distance words like “but,” “anyway,” and “other.”


Expository or almost exclusively Expository.


Whatever your points are, you must next substantiate and validate your claim through an element of factual evidence. In fact, the following aspects should lead to these results.

1). Claim – Demonstrate

2). Thesis – give an example.

3). Opinion – justify

4). Claim – Submit evidence

5). Argument – evidence


While the fictional and memoir / creative nonfiction books usually need a hook to captivate the reader so that he can invest his time in them, an essay or thesis requires a concise statement about what to discuss and ultimately prove. Writing may prove daunting or intimidating, but in the true “progress-not-perfection” philosophy, the author does not have to “pin it down” the first time. Instead, he can wade into the water with the following two methods.

1). Simply state what the thesis is, as if you orally associate it with someone, and make sure that it is hardly the final draft.

2). Capture all the words you can, even if they are not exactly related to each other. Then begin the refinement and definition by swiping the word, substituting and explaining and expanding other words until you are satisfied with the final product.


Although you can not personally know who reads your work, except, of course, your professor, there are several guidelines that will allow you to achieve them, if you consider the following points.

1). They are logical, sensible people.

2). They work with a considerable amount of common sense.

3). They have emotions and can therefore be moved, persuaded, surprised, annoyed and sad.

4). You can be persuaded to accept and accept your views, provided you provide sufficient support and evidence to prove them.

5). You have enough education and interest in the world, life, people and your topic.


The more impersonal your work is, the more formal your tone should be. Contractions such as “I have” and “not” should be avoided or replaced by “I have” and “not”.


Because research and dissertations require evidence and support, quotes from other sources and people are an integral part of this writing genre. There are three more times they should be used.

1). When they present words to the reader for accurate analysis.

2). When they deliver that crucial evidence.

3). If they say something so well, clearly and / or succinctly that the author can not improve them.

There are two types of sources.

1). Primary: works, fonts, documents, and artifacts created at the time of the recorded event or recorded person.

2). Secondary: Fonts that decrypt, analyze, and / or comment on these original materials or the species favored by scientists.


Transitions are words like “but,” “but,” “other,” “extra,” and “still,” which change the direction of a subject or subject. For example, poverty is at the heart of the problem. However, the underlying causes of this aspect must first be discussed before a solution can be considered.


There is no official or correct paragraph length. A paragraph offers subtle interruptions and signals the beginning of a new theme, a new direction or a new thought.


1). Choose your topic: The topics may depend on the assignment, a list from which only one can be selected, and / or the approval of the professor. But nothing improves a literary work more than a subject that interests the author, that is challenged by him, that he believes in, and that he loves passionately. These parameters facilitate the transcendence from mere “duty” to obtain a note for the reflection of his passion, or to some degree for the secular writing mechanic of emotional expression. The first is a coast. The latter is a ride. On the other hand, limiting your own knowledge of certain areas, such as technical and source material, will severely limit the scope and quality of your work and may exceed your ability to write or even understand.

Here are five examples of thesis topics:

on). How do fats affect the human body and mind?

b). How close has humanity come to creating artificial intelligence?

c). What are the best ways to reduce global warming?

d). How does a new adoption law in Russia minimize orphaned children’s chances of happiness?

e). Is multitasking a productive or destructive way of working?

2). Assess source material: Before you select a topic or thesis, you may want to first determine the quantity and quality of the material that you can use to prove your thesis. If there is little, you probably will not produce satisfactory paper. Sources include, of course, libraries, published works, electronic venues, documents, corporations, government agencies, subject-specific works and experts in the field. Cited sources must be credited and listed in the bibliography of the work.

3). Make your thesis statement: Thesis statements, which can be seen as creeds that you ultimately need to support and substantiate through your sources, are the topic of your work. They should be given immediately, as in the first line or in the first paragraph. They become the source of the literary journey and their proof of purpose.

As you research, analyze, develop and support your message, the message itself can be refined or modified. You may find that it is either too narrow or too wide. It should be strong and specific.

4). Creating an Outline: Like a roadmap, you can use an outline to both create a map and follow your course from the origin or thesis to the goal or conclusion, indicating the direction. It can be either formal, with steps checked by numbers, letters, headings, and subheadings, or informally, which may only contain an enumeration, but may include some or all of the following sections.

on). Title page.

b). Abstract – a short summary of the paper.

c). Introduction.

d). Body, divided into arguments, points of evidence and sources to cite.

e). Reference or bibliography.

f). Tables, illustrations and, if necessary, annex.

5). Organize Your Notes: Notes are the raw data that will ultimately be converted into the body of the work whose end product will be greatly improved if arranged in the order of the arguments. If opposing views support your thesis, they should be involved. With this step to organize notes you can analyze, synthesize, sort and process your collected information. The entire cited material must appear in the order in which the arguments are presented.

6). Write your first draft: After your design and using your organized notes and sources you can write your first draft.

7). Revise your thesis: Reworking is the process of rewriting and refining to ensure that the facts are correct, that ideas are clearly expressed, and that the text flows logically and is always supported. You can ask yourself the following questions.

on). Is my thesis short and clear?

b). Did I follow my outline? Did I forgot something?

c). Are my arguments represented in a logical order?

d). Are all sources quoted correctly?

e). Did I substantiate my thesis with sound arguments?

f). Did I leave my readers with a sense of perfection at the end of the work?

8th). Edit your thesis: Revision rewrites. Editing is done by proofreading and checking for errors like spelling, grammar and punctuation.